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Municipal Law News

September 25, 2023

In this issue:



   Solar Panel Battery   

The Next Controversial Land Use: Utility-Scale Battery Facilities

Keith T. Brown

As utility-scale wind and solar facilities began dramatically increasing in number across Michigan, many municipalities found themselves caught off guard by the sudden influx of actors proposing these projects in their communities. In many areas, residents vocally worried about the impact these projects may have on their neighborhoods...

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   I Voted Sticker on Gavel   

Supreme Court Rules that Elections Must Abide by State Laws 

Mallory E. Reader

The United States Supreme Court recently ruled that state legislatures must abide by the election laws of their respective states.

The Elections Clause of the Federal Constitution, Art. I, § 4, cl. 1, provides that the time, place, and manner of holding elections for United States Senators and Representatives shall be determined by state legislatures. This imposes on state legislatures the duty to prescribe rules governing federal elections, but the Elections Clause does not vest state legislatures with authority to set rules governing federal elections free from restrictions imposed under state law...

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   Tobacco Sign Outside School   

Carbon Sequestration Wells: A New Land Use to Consider in Zoning Ordinances

Keith T. Brown

As green energy and climate-related regulations increase, discussion around carbon sequestration also increases.  Carbon sequestration wells are used to inject carbon dioxide into deep rock formations for permanent storage.  The objective is to remove that carbon dioxide from the atmosphere to mitigate climate effects. However these wells must be extensively regulated to prevent negative side effects...

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Preparing for 2024: What Employers Need to Know

October 12, 2023

You're invited to join our Fall 2023 Labor & Employment Law Update webinar. 

Learn more about the major issues and developments companies and businesses need to address now for 2024 such as employers' use of AI, employee misclassification, and the current state of noncompetes.




Foster Swift Welcomes Agrusa and Roragen to Municipal Practice

Courtney AgrusaFoster Swift Collins & Smith welcomes attorneys Courtney G. Agrusa and Kevin J. Roragen to its Municipal & Public Entity practice group.

Courtney's experience in municipal law consists of reviewing contracts, millages and ordinances while also researching and drafting opinions and memorandums for public entities on topics including:

  • Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
  • Open Meetings Act (OMA)
  • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
  • Paid Medical Leave Act (PMLA)
  • Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA)
  • Family Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
  • Michigan Zoning Enabling Act (MZEA)

Kevin Roragen

Kevin represents clients on commercial and real estate litigation and transactional matters, primarily in the areas of real estate sales and development, zoning and municipal land use regulation, oil and gas, tax, and other commercial and business matters.

Kevin has more than 25 years’ experience representing:

  • Real estate developers
  • Housing management companies
  • Municipalities
  • Oil and gas producers
  • Dental and medical practices
  • Manufacturing companies
  • Charitable organizations and
  • Individuals in various legal matters.






Grand Rapids






St Joseph


Foster Swift Collins & Smith, PC E-Newsletters are intended for general information for our clients and friends. This newsletter highlights specific areas of law and is not legal advice. The reader should consult an attorney to determine how this information applies to any specific situation.

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